The Research

The Debrief2Learn Team strives to conduct research and develop resources that will enhance debriefing to improve learner and patient outcomes. Our research is organized into 8 key areas below which were largely authored by members of the Debrief2Learn team.


We are committed to making our research as accessible as possible to as many as possible. Consistent with this commitment, whenever possible links to freely archived PDF versions of each article are included. In cases where the is not possible, please contact us directly via the Research Gate links provided under the “Free PDF” tab so that we can send you a personal copy.
In addition to providing easy access to our work, we aim to contextualize and translate our work in the broader body of debriefing literature. Over time, we aim to publish resources (e.g. notes, PowerPoint slidesets, blog posts, and podcasts) relevant to each of the 8 categories below and the articles within them.
If you are interested in any of our research, be sure to explore the ‘Altmetric’ and ‘Cited by’ buttons. Altmetric tracks social media-, blog-, podcast-, and news-based discussion of our articles. The ‘Cited by’ buttons will take you to a list of work that builds on our research.
As outlined on our Resources Page, all of the resources published on the Debrief2Learn website have been published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0). In plain English, that means that you are welcome to use it for educational purposes so long as you attribute Debrief2Learn and share any derivatives that you develop under the same license.

The art and science of debriefing in simulation: Ideal and practice (Dieckmann, 2009)
This paper describes the practice of debriefing based on interactions between instructors and participants.
Pubmed Medical Teacher Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Investigating novice doctors’ reflections in debriefing (Kihlgren, 2014)
This study explores the degree of reflection during debriefing after simulation in novice doctors.
Pubmed Medical Teacher Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

How Cultural-Historical Activity Theory can Inform Interprofessional Team Debriefings (Eppich, 2015)
This paper describes how cultural-historical activity theory offers a complementary conceptual framework when used in conjunction with existing debriefing practices.
Clinical Simulation in Nursing Free PDF Altmetric Score

“Thinking on your feet”—a qualitative study of debriefing practice (Krogh, 2016)
This qualitative study explores self-reported practices of expert debriefers.
Advances in Simulation Free PDF Altmetric Score

Debriefing for technology-enhanced simulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis (Cheng, 2014)
This study reviews the debriefing literature, describes how debriefing is reported, and highlights features of effective debriefing.
Pubmed Medical Education Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Briefing and debriefing during simulation-based training and beyond: Content, structure, attitude and setting (Kolbe, 2015)
This paper provides an overview of the debriefing literature, with a focus on content, structure, attitude and setting.
Pubmed Clinical Anesthesiology Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

More Than One Way to Debrief: A Critical Review of Healthcare Simulation Debriefing Methods (Sawyer, 2016)
This critical review examines the timing, facilitation, conversational structures and process elements used in healthcare simulation debriefing.
Pubmed Simulation in Healthcare Free PDF Altmetric Score

Looking in the mirror: Self-debriefing versus instructor debriefing for simulated crises (Boet, 2011)
This study compares the effectiveness of self-debriefing to instructor-led debriefing in anesthesiology training.
Pubmed Critical Care Medicine Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Adaptation of the US Army’s After-Action Review for simulation debriefing in healthcare (Sawyer, 2013)
This paper describes the practice of debriefing based on interactions between instructors and participants.
Pubmed Simulation in Healthcare Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

TeamGAINS: a tool for structured debriefings for simulation-based team trainings (Kolbe, 2013)
This study describes TeamGAINS, a hybrid structured debriefing tool for simulation-based team debriefings.
Pubmed BMJ Quality and Safety Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Within-team debriefing versus instructor-led debriefing for simulation-based education: a randomized controlled trial (Boet, 2013)
This study compares within team debriefing to instructor-led debriefing for healthcare simulation education.
Pubmed Annals of Surgery Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

The relationship between facilitators’ questions and the level of reflection in postsimulation debriefing (Husebo, 2013)
This study explores the depth of reflection expressed in questions by facilitators and the associated responses from students during the debriefing.
Pubmed Simulation in Healthcare Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Promoting Excellence and Reflective Learning in Simulation (PEARLS): Development and Rationale for a Blended Approach to Health Care Simulation Debriefing (Eppich, 2015)
This paper describes PEARLS, a blended approach to debriefing including directive feedback, learner self-assessment, and focused facilitation.
Pubmed Simulation in Healthcare Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Structuring Feedback and Debriefing to Achieve Mastery Learning Goals (Eppich, 2015)
This paper highlights how to structure feedback and debriefing in the context of mastery learning.
Pubmed Academic Medicine Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

‘The Diamond’: a structure for simulation debrief (Jaye, 2015)
The Diamond Model of debriefing is specifically designed to allow for exploration of the non-technical aspects of medical management.
Pubmed The Clinical Teacher Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Learner-Centered Debriefing for Health Care Simulation Education: Lessons for Faculty Development (Cheng, 2016)
In this paper, we describe how the concept of learner-centered teaching can be applied to debriefing.
Pubmed Simulation in Healthcare Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Debriefing as Formative Assessment: Closing Performance Gaps in Medical Education (Rudolph, 2008)
This paper presents a four-step model of debriefing for formative assessment following the debriefing for good judgement method of debriefing.
Pubmed Academic Emergency Medicine Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

The Effectiveness of Video-Assisted Debriefing Versus Oral Debriefing Alone at Improving Neonatal Resuscitation Performance: A Randomized Trial (Sawyer, 2012)
This study compares video-assisted debriefing to oral debriefing alone for neonatal resuscitation.
Pubmed Simulation in Healthcare Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Examining pediatric resuscitation education using simulation and scripted debriefing: a multicenter randomized trial (Cheng, 2013)
This study compares video-assisted debriefing to oral debriefing alone for neonatal resuscitation.
Pubmed JAMA Pediatrics Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

It is time to consider cultural differences in debriefing (Chung, 2013)
This paper highlights how cultural expectations influence the process of debriefing and resultant outcomes.
Pubmed Simulation in Healthcare Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Expert Practice of Video-Assisted Debriefing: An Australian Qualitative Study (Krogh, 2015)
This paper describes experts’ views on optimal use of video-assisted debriefing.
Clinical Simulation in Nursing Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Co-debriefing for Simulation-based Education: A Primer for Facilitators (Cheng, 2015)
This paper describes a conceptual framework and strategies to enhance co-debriefing for healthcare simulation education.
Pubmed Simulation in Healthcare Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By Conference Slides

Debriefing assessment for simulation in healthcare: development and psychometric properties (Brett-Fleegler, 2012)
This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of the DASH (Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare) tool.
Pubmed Simulation in Healthcare Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Evolution of the Pediatric Advanced Life Support course: Enhanced learning with a new debriefing tool and Web-based module for Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors (Cheng, 2012)
This paper describes the incorporation of a scripted debriefing tool into the American Heart Association resuscitation courses.
Pubmed Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Faculty Development for Simulation Programs: Five Issues for the Future of Debriefing Training (Cheng, 2015)
In this paper, we outline five key issues that will be critical address for the future of faculty development for simulation educators.
Pubmed Simulation in Healthcare Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Competency-based simulation education: should competency standards apply for simulation educators? (Eppich, 2015)
Here we highlight the importance of faculty development in simulation education, particularly related to competency-based medical education.
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

The Promoting Excellence and Reflective Learning in Simulation (PEARLS) Approach to Health Care Debriefing: A Faculty Development Guide (Cheng, 2016)
This paper serves as a guide for those wishing to teach the PEARLS approach to debriefing to educators within their program.
Clinical Simulation in Nursing

Implementation of an In Situ Qualitative Debriefing Tool for Resuscitations (Mullan, 2013)
This study described the implementation of the clinical debriefing program in a pediatric emergency department.
Pubmed Resuscitation Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Debriefing in the emergency department after clinical events: a practical guide (Kessler, 2015)
This study described the implementation of the clinical debriefing program in a pediatric emergency department.
Pubmed Annals of Emergency Medicine Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Educational opportunities with postevent debriefing (Mullan, 2015)
In this commentary, we describe how clinical events serves as important educational opportunities that can be capitalized on with debriefing.
Pubmed JAMA Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Interdisciplinary ICU cardiac arrest debriefing improves survival outcomes (Wolfe, 2014)
This study describe the impact of a data-informed clinical debriefing program on outcomes from pediatric cardiac arrest.
Pubmed Critical Care Medicine Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Post-event debriefings during neonatal care: why are we not doing them, and how can we start? (Sawyer, 2016)
This paper discusses how to implement clinical debriefings in neonatology.
Pubmed Journal of Perinatology Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Research regarding debriefing as part of the learning process (Raemer, 2011)
This paper shares the SIM-PICO approach to designing and debriefing research study.
Pubmed Simulation in Healthcare Free PDF Altmetric Score Cited By

Reporting guidelines for health care simulation research: extensions to the CONSORT and STROBE statements (Cheng, 2016)
This study describes the development of reporting guidelines for simulation-based research, including reporting elements for the debriefing process.
Advances in Simulation Free PDF Altmetric Score Podcast